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ASCII IPA schemes

There are many schemes around to represent the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) using ASCII, by mapping the symbols onto the ISO 464 printable character repertoire. While some of them are drawn up exclusively for pronunciations of English or European languages, some others are aimed at minimising the use of ASCII characters and signs; yet while some provide for the encoding of all the IPA characters, some are short by a few characters.

Noted among such ASCII-IPA schemes include Evan Kirshenbaum's, X-SAMPA (extended Speech Assessment Method Phonetic Alphabet), Kolagian Phonetic Alphabet, David Prager Branner's, Couts-Barrett's, Miguel Carrasquer Vidal's and WorldBret. Here is a comparison table of all the schemes.

Description EK X-SAM KPA DPG C-B MCV WB
Voiceless bilabial plosive p p p p p p p
Voiced bilabial plosive b b b b b b b
Voiceless alveolar plosive t t t t t t t
Voiced alveolar plosive d d d d d d d
Voiceless retroflex plosive t. t` t. tr) <t t. tr
Voiced retroflex plosive d. d` d. dr) <d d. dr
Voiceless palatal plosive c c c c c c c
Voiced palatal plosive J J\ J j- -j J J
Voiceless velar plosive k k k k k k k
Voiced velar plosive g g g g g g g
Voiceless uvular plosive q q q q q q q
Voiced uvular plosive G G\ Q G G Q
Voiceless glottal plosive ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Voiced bilabial nasal m m m m m m m
Voiced labiodental nasal M F M M m) M M
Voiced alveolar nasal n n n n n n n
Voiced retroflex nasal n. n` n. nr) <n n. nr
Voiced palatal nasal n^ J nj) |n n~
Voiced velar nasal N N N ng) n) N N
Voiced uvular nasal N\ N N Nq
Voiced bilabial trill b<trl> B\ B B B
Voiced alveolar trill r<trl> r r r r r r
Voiced uvular trill R\ R R R
Voiced alveolar flap * 4 ;J r(
Voiced retroflex flap *. r` r. <r r. rr
Voiceless bilabial fricative F p\ P F |o P F
Voiced bilabial fricative B B B V |B B V
Voiceless labiodental fricative f f f f f f f
Voiced labiodental fricative v v v v v v v
Voiceless dental fricative T T T T -O T T
Voiced dental fricative D D D D -d D D
Voiceless alveolar fricative s s s s s s s
Voiced alveolar fricative z z z z z z z
Voiceless postalveolar fricative S S S S S S S
Voiced postalveolar fricative Z Z Z Z Z Z Z
Voiceless retroflex fricative s. s` s. sr) <s s. sr
Voiced retroflex fricative z. z` z. zr) <z z. zr
Voiceless palatal fricative C C C >c C C
Voiced palatal fricative C<vcd> j\ &j j^
Voiceless velar fricative x x x x x x x
Voiced velar fricative Q G G &V G G
Voiceless uvular fricative X X X X X X X
Voiced uvular fricative R R R& ;R R* K
Voiceless pharyngeal fricative H X\ H h- -h H H
Voiced pharyngeal fricative H<vcd> ?\ 9 ?& ;? # !
Voiceless glottal fricative h h h h h h h
Voiced glottal fricative h<?> h\ (h hv
Voiceless alveolar lateral fricative s<lat> K l- &l s* hl
Voiced alveolar lateral fricative z<lat> K\ .lZ z* Zl
Voiced labiodental approximant r<lbd> P V V V[
Voiced alveolar approximant r r\ r* r& ;r R 9
Voiced retroflex approximant r. r\` r*. jr) <;r R. 9r
Voiced palatal approximant j j j j j j j
Voiced velar approximant j<vel> M\ ;|m 4)
Voiced alveolar lateral approximant l l l l l l l
Voiced retroflex lateral approximant l. l` l. lr) <l l. lr
Voiced palatal lateral approximant l^ L L y& ;y L L
Voiced velar lateral approximant L L\ L L Lg
Bilabial click p! O\ p! p! !* p! p|
Dental click t! |\ T! t! !P c! |
(Post)alveolar click c! !\ t! r! !D t! t|
Palatoalveolar click c! =\ tl! c! !# c! c|
Alveolar lateral click k! |\|\ c! l! !! 1! l|
Voiced bilabial implosive b` b_< b( b$ (b b<
Voiced dental/alveolar implosive d` d_< d( d$ (d d<
Voiced palatal implosive J` J\_< J( j$   J<
Voiced velar implosive g` g_< g( g$ (g g<
Voiced uvular implosive G` G\_< Q( G$ (G G* Q<
Ejective ` _> ` ` ' 1 >
Close front unrounded vowel i i i i i i i
Close front rounded vowel y y y y y y y
Near-close front unrounded vowel I I I I I I I
Near-close front rounded vowel I. Y Y Y Y Y Y
Close-mid front unrounded vowel e e e e e e e
Close-mid front rounded vowel Y 2 7
Open-mid front unrounded vowel E E E E ;3 E E
Open-mid front rounded vowel &. 9 oe) .oe 8 E/
Near-open front unrounded vowel & { & ae) .ae & @
Open front unrounded vowel a a a a a a a
Open front rounded vowel W & OE) .OE &* 6
Open back unrounded vowel A A A A @ A A
Open back rounded vowel A. Q 6 A& ;@ 5
Open-mid back unrounded vowel V V V v& ;V A* ^
Open-mid back rounded vowel O O O O ;c O >
Close-mid back unrounded vowel o- 7 &v o* 2
Close-mid back rounded vowel o o o o o o o
Near-close back unrounded vowel U U U U U U U
Close back unrounded vowel u- M W ;m 4
Close back rounded vowel u u u u u u u
Close central unrounded vowel 1 i- -i ix
Close central rounded vowel } u- -u ux
Close-mid central unrounded vowel @<umd> @\ e& 9  
Close-mid central rounded vowel @. 8 8 O- -o e* ox
Schwa @ @ @ @ ;e @ &
Open-mid central unrounded vowel 3 E* E& 3 3
Open-mid central rounded vowel 3\ W E*  
Near-open cental vowel a. 6 a* a& ;a ax
Voiceless labial-velar fricative w<vls> W W w& ;w W W
Voiced labial-velar approximant w w w w w w w
Voiced labial-palatal approximant j<rnd> H h& ;h jw
Voiceless epiglottal fricaive   H\ H H  
Voiced epiglottal fricaive   <\ -;?  
Epiglottal plosive   >\ ?- -?  
Voiceless alveo-palatal fricative   s\ ci) &c c}
Voiced alveo-palatal fricative   z\ zi) &z z}
Alveolar lateral flap *<lat> l\ l* ;|r l)
Simultaneous S and x   x\ $ Sx) (h) S*  
Tie bar   _ {} ))      
Primary stress ' ' ' ' ' '
Secondary stress , , , , , ,
Long : : : : : : :
Half-long   :\ ; ; ;  
Extra-short   _X ^( (^ ( .'  
Syllable break     - . . .  
Minor (foot) group   | | | |    
Major (intonation) group   || || || |    
Linking   -\ = =) _    
Extra high   _T        
High   _H 4 ^'        
Mid   _M 3 ^-        
Low   _L 2 ^`        
Extra low   _B 1 ^=        
Extra high   <T>          
High   <H>          
Mid   <M>          
Low   <L>          
Extra low   <B>          
Downstep   ! > \)      
upstep   ^ < /)      
Rising   _R 24 ^v        
Falling   _F 42 ^^        
High rising   _H_T          
Low rising   _B_L          
Rising-falling   _R_F          
Rising   <BT>          
Falling   <TB>          
High rising   <HT>          
Low rising   <BL>          
Rising-falling   <HTH>          
Global rise   <R> << /      
Global fall   <F> >> \      
Voiceless <o> _h _0 V) ^o   0
Voiced   _v _v v)     v
Aspirated <h> _h ^h h^ ^h   h
More rounded   _O _) u) >   (w)
Less rounded   _c _( U) <    
Advanced   _+ _+ + +   +
Retracted   _- _- _ -   _
Centralized <?> ^:   x
Mid-centralized   _x ^x x^ ^x   x
Syllabic - = _| ,) $   =
Non-syllabic   _^ _^ (     (
Rhoticity <r> ` ^r r^ ^r   r
Breathy voiced   _t _:   Hv
Creaky voiced   _k _~ ~ ;~   ?
Linguolabial   _N _m { }   {
Labialized <w> _w ^w w^ ^w   w
Palatalized ; ' ^j j^     j
Velarized ~ _G ^G g^     ?
Pharyngealized   _?\ _9 ?&^     !
Velarized or pharyngealized   _e ^~ ~) =   ~
Raised   _r _^ =     ^
Lowered   _O _V     /
Advanced tongue root   _A _< < >    
Retracted tongue root   _q _> > <    
Dental [ _d _d [ [   [
Apical   _a _a ] ]   ]
Laminal   _m _l [] []   }
Nasalized ~ ~ ~ ~^ ~   ~
Nasal release   _n ^n n^ ^n   n
Lateral release <lat> _l ^l l^ ^l   l
No audible release <o> _} ^7 .) ^7   (

 

Legend

EK - Evan Kirshenbaum
X-SAM - X-SAMPA (extended Speech Assessment Method Phonetic Alphabet)
KPA - Kolagian Phonetic Alphabet
DPB - David Prager Branner
CB - Couts-Barrett
MCV - Miguel Carrasquer Vidal
WB - WorldBret

 

Revised: 01 April 2012